causes, symptoms, and history of polio, as well as the steps for eradicating polio completely. Progress has been hard fought indeed, but the prospects for completing the eradicationof polio and securing this victory forever are now better than ever. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Co;1965: 430473. By, jeffrey Kluger, jan. Throughout history, polio epidemics have led to the deaths of many thousands of people around the world. A child is vaccinated against polio at Toll Plaza, on the outskirts of Karachi. Poliovirus transmission persisted in a handful of countries with weak immunization systems and low performing eradication activities, resulting in ongoing international spread and recurrent virus importations into previously polio-free countries. The next section, Regional and Country Experiences, offers a collection of country and regional polio reports on progress toward polio eradication and highlights both the technical and programmatic innovations used and challenges faced along the way. One of the key remaining polio-endemic countries, Nigeria, achieved a 50 decrease in the number of polio cases in 2013, compared with 2012, with cases in the first half of 2014 registering in single digits. 210 suppl 1 (pg. Annual expenditures more than tripled and would soon reach US1 billion a year as the remaining polio-infected countries, including those that had become reinfected, doubled and tripled the number of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaigns they were conducting to fill the immunity gaps left. The relatively recent history of outbreaks in both the United States and Europe has led to an allocation of resources with which to fight the disease. One billion dollars per year over the next few years could save 50 billion over the next 20 years in the costs of continuing to chase the disease around the globe and treat the children who are felled. All of that money could turn out to be very very well spent. These recommendations are designed to require polio vaccination of residents of all ages prior to their departure from polio-exporting countries, to reduce the risk of international spread of polioviruses from infected areas into previously polio-free countries (Figure 2 ). Paralytic polio may also be classified as: Spinal polio : The virus attacks motor neurons in the spinal cord that causes paralysis in the arms and legs, and breathing problems. Table of contents, polio, also known as poliomyelitis and infantile paralysis, is a highly contagious viral infection that can lead to paralysis, breathing problems, or even death. The Journal of Infectious Diseases last reviewed progress and prospects in 1997. Around half of the people who have had polio go on to develop post-polio syndrome. Historically, a person who developed lung paralysis due to polio was placed into an iron lung, a device that would push and pull chest muscles to make them work. Once the virus has entered an individual, it infects the cells of the throat and intestine. This version is the vaccine of choice in many countries because it is low cost, easy to administer, and gives an excellent level of immunity. Since that day, humanity has been free to put the vaccines against the disease and the terror its periodic outbreaks would cause on the shelf forever. Individuals who carry the poliovirus can spread it via their feces for weeks, even if they have shown no symptoms themselves. Drone strikes in the country were halted. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China. Although polio has essentially been eradicated in the.S. Those killings followed nine others in December, as well as the shooting of a Ghanaian doctor, also conducting polio-vaccination work in Pakistan, in July. In these cases, the virus enters motor neurons where it replicates and destroys the cells. The World Health Organiation (WHO) aim is to eradicate polio completely and, if this happens, it will be only the third disease to have been beaten in this way, after smallpox and rinderpest. Am J Public Health Nations Health. The vast majority of polio infections present no symptoms.
More detail and supporting information is in types of petition writing the main article. Status report, nigeria 1997, polio was similarly near its end when clerics in Northern Nigeria halted inoculations claiming that change subject line when topic changes the vaccine contained HIV and was designed to sterilize children. As of July 2014, afghanistan, suggesting that this serotype may now have joined type 2 poliovirus in having been eradicated. Not only were the remaining wild poliovirus serotypes 1 and 3 still circulating and paralyzing children.
This MNT Knowledge Center article will look at the causes, symptoms, and history of polio, as well as the steps for eradicating polio completely.The Scientist s articles tagged with: polio.
Accessed March 7, because polio is so contagious, times have changed a great deal since the World Health Assembly launched polio the gpei in 1988 and since. The then SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations. Direct contact with a person infected with the virus can cause polio. Convened a special Polio Eradication Summit in September of that year to ensure that the program. In addition, s largest countries remained mired in the disease.
However, subjecting this epidemic-prone disease to control had by then proven to be a false premise.tIME: Read the magazine story on polio, available to subscribers here but polio still has strong-armed friends.However, in very rare cases, OPV has been known to revert to a dangerous form of poliovirus, which is able to cause paralysis.